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中走丝断丝原因

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中走丝断丝原因

发布日期:2016-04-21 00:00 来源:http://meinaif.com.cn 点击:

1,钼(mu)丝钼(mu)丝的松(song)紧程度

如果钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)安(an)装太松(song),则钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)抖动厉害(hai) ,不仅会(hui)(hui)造(zao)成断丝(si)(si)(si),而且由(you)于(yu)钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)抖动直(zhi)接影响(xiang)工件表面粗糙度。但钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)也(ye)不能安(an)装 得(de)太紧(jin),太紧(jin)内应(ying)(ying)力增大,也(ye)会(hui)(hui)造(zao)成断丝(si)(si)(si),因此钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)在(zai)切割过(guo)程(cheng)中,其松(song)紧(jin)程(cheng)度要(yao)(yao)适当 ,新安(an)装的(de)(de)钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si),要(yao)(yao)先紧(jin)丝(si)(si)(si)再加工,紧(jin)丝(si)(si)(si)时(shi)用力不要(yao)(yao)太大。钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)在(zai)加工一段时(shi)间后,由(you) 于(yu)自身的(de)(de)拉伸(shen)(shen)而变松(song)。当伸(shen)(shen)长量较大时(shi),会(hui)(hui)加剧(ju)钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)振(zhen)动或出(chu)现钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)在(zai)贮丝(si)(si)(si)筒上重叠。 使(shi)走(zou)丝(si)(si)(si)不稳而引起断丝(si)(si)(si)。应(ying)(ying)经常检(jian)查钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)松(song)紧(jin)程(cheng)度,如果存在(zai)松(song)弛现象,要(yao)(yao)及时(shi)拉紧(jin) 。

钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)安装。钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)要按规定(ding)的走(zou)向绕在贮(zhu)丝(si)筒上,同(tong)时固定(ding)两端。绕丝(si)时,一般贮(zhu)丝(si) 筒两端各留(liu)10mm,中间绕满不(bu)重叠,宽(kuan)度不(bu)少(shao)于贮(zhu)丝(si)筒长度的一半,以免电机换向频(pin)繁(fan) 而使机件加速损坏(huai),也(ye)防(fang)止钼(mu)(mu)丝(si)频(pin)繁(fan)参与切割而断丝(si)。

机床上钼(mu)(mu)(mu)丝引出处有挡(dang)丝棒,挡(dang)丝棒是由两根红宝石制成(cheng)的(de)导(dao)向立柱,挡(dang)丝棒不(bu)像 导(dao)轮那样作滚动(dong)运动(dong),他们直(zhi)接与(yu)钼(mu)(mu)(mu)丝接触,作滑动(dong)摩擦。因此(ci)磨损(sun)很快,使(shi)用不(bu)久柱 体与(yu)钼(mu)(mu)(mu)丝接触的(de)地(di)方就会形(xing)成(cheng)深沟,必须及(ji)时检查并进(jin)行翻转和更换,否则会出现叠丝 断丝。

2,运丝机构(gou)

中(zhong)(zhong)走丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)线切割(ge)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)主要是由贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、线架和导(dao)轮组成。当运(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度下降时(shi)(shi)(shi) (主要是传动(dong)(dong)(dong)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承),会(hui)(hui)引(yin)起(qi)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)径向(xiang)(xiang)跳(tiao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)和轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)向(xiang)(xiang)窜(cuan)(cuan)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)径向(xiang)(xiang)跳(tiao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)电(dian)(dian) 极(ji)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)张力减小,造成丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)松,严重时(shi)(shi)(shi)会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)从(cong)导(dao)轮槽中(zhong)(zhong)脱出(chu)拉断(duan)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)向(xiang)(xiang)窜(cuan)(cuan)动(dong)(dong)(dong) 会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)排丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)不匀(yun),产生(sheng)(sheng)叠(die)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)现象。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)和轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承等零件(jian)常因磨(mo)损而(er)产生(sheng)(sheng)间(jian)隙,也容易(yi) 引(yin)起(qi)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)抖(dou)动(dong)(dong)(dong)而(er)断(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),因此(ci)(ci)(ci)必(bi)(bi)须及(ji)时(shi)(shi)(shi)更换(huan)(huan)磨(mo)损的(de)(de)(de)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)和轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承等零件(jian)。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)换(huan)(huan)向(xiang)(xiang)时(shi)(shi)(shi),如没有(you) 切断(duan)高频电(dian)(dian)源,会(hui)(hui)导(dao)致钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)在(zai)(zai)短时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)内温度过高而(er)烧断(duan)钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),因此(ci)(ci)(ci)必(bi)(bi)须检查(cha)(cha)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后(hou)端 的(de)(de)(de)行程开关是否(fou)(fou)失灵(ling)。要保持(chi)贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、导(dao)轮转(zhuan)动(dong)(dong)(dong)灵(ling)活,否(fou)(fou)则(ze)在(zai)(zai)往返运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)时(shi)(shi)(shi)会(hui)(hui)引(yin)起(qi)运(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)系 统(tong)振动(dong)(dong)(dong)而(er)断(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)。绕(rao)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)后(hou)空载(zai)走丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)检验钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)是否(fou)(fou)抖(dou)动(dong)(dong)(dong),若发生(sheng)(sheng)抖(dou)动(dong)(dong)(dong)要分(fen)析原因。贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)后(hou) 端的(de)(de)(de)限(xian)位挡(dang)块必(bi)(bi)须调整好,避(bi)免贮(zhu)(zhu)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)筒(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)冲出(chu)限(xian)位行程而(er)断(duan)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)。挡(dang)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)装置中(zhong)(zhong)挡(dang)块与快速(su)运(yun)(yun) 动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)接触、摩擦(ca),易(yi)产生(sheng)(sheng)沟槽并造成夹丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)拉断(duan),因此(ci)(ci)(ci)也需及(ji)时(shi)(shi)(shi)更换(huan)(huan)。导(dao)轮轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承的(de)(de)(de)磨(mo) 损将直接影(ying)响导(dao)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)精(jing)(jing)度,此(ci)(ci)(ci)外(wai),当导(dao)轮的(de)(de)(de)v型槽、宝石限(xian)位块、导(dao)电(dian)(dian)块磨(mo)损后(hou)产生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)沟槽 ,也会(hui)(hui)使(shi)(shi)电(dian)(dian)极(ji)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)摩擦(ca)力过大,易(yi)将钼丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)拉断(duan)。这(zhei)种现象一般发生(sheng)(sheng)在(zai)(zai)机(ji)(ji)床使(shi)(shi)用时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)较长(zhang) 、加工工件(jian)较厚、运(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou)不易(yi)清理的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况下。因此(ci)(ci)(ci)在(zai)(zai)机(ji)(ji)床使(shi)(shi)用中(zhong)(zhong)应定期检查(cha)(cha)运(yun)(yun)丝(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)(gou) 的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度,及(ji)时(shi)(shi)(shi)更换(huan)(huan)易(yi)磨(mo)损件(jian)。

3,工件

工(gong)(gong)件(jian)材料(liao):对(dui)不经(jing)锻(duan)打、不淬(cui)火(huo)(huo)材料(liao),在(zai)线切(qie)(qie)割加工(gong)(gong)前最好采用低(di)温(wen)回火(huo)(huo)消(xiao)除(chu)内(nei)(nei)应 力,因为如(ru)果工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)内(nei)(nei)应力没有(you)得到消(xiao)除(chu),在(zai)切(qie)(qie)割时(shi),有(you)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)会(hui)开裂,把钼丝(si)碰断(duan)(duan); 有(you)的(de)(de)会(hui)使间隙变形,把钼丝(si)夹断(duan)(duan)或弹断(duan)(duan)。如(ru)淬(cui)火(huo)(huo)后t8钢在(zai)线切(qie)(qie)割加工(gong)(gong)中及易引起断(duan)(duan)丝(si)尽 量(liang)少用。切(qie)(qie)割厚铝材料(liao)时(shi),由于(yu)排屑困难,导电(dian)块(kuai)磨损(sun)较大(da),注意(yi)及时(shi)更换。

工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)装夹:虽然(ran)线切割加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)受力极小,但仍需(xu)牢固夹紧(jin)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),防止加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong) 过(guo)(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong)因(yin)(yin)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)位置变(bian)动造成断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)。同(tong)时要(yao)(yao)避免(mian)由于(yu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的自重(zhong)和工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)材料的弹性变(bian)形造 成的断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)。在(zai)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)厚重(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)时,可在(zai)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)快要(yao)(yao)结束时,用磁铁(tie)吸(xi)住将要(yao)(yao)下落(luo)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),或 者人工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)保护下落(luo)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),使(shi)其平行缓慢下落(luo)从(cong)而防止断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)。 4电(dian)(dian)参(can)数电(dian)(dian)参(can)数选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)不当也 是引起断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)的一(yi)(yi)个重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)原(yuan)因(yin)(yin),所(suo)以要(yao)(yao)根据(ju)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)厚度选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)合理的电(dian)(dian)参(can)数,将脉(mai)冲(chong)间(jian)隔拉开 一(yi)(yi)些,有(you)利于(yu)熔化(hua)金(jin)属微粒(li)的排(pai)出(chu),同(tong)时峰(feng)值(zhi)电(dian)(dian)流和空载(zai)电(dian)(dian)压不宜过(guo)(guo)高,否则使(shi)单(dan)个脉(mai) 冲(chong)能量变(bian)大(da),切割速度加快,容易(yi)(yi)产生集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)和拉弧(hu),引起断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)。一(yi)(yi)般(ban)空载(zai)电(dian)(dian)压为 100v左(zuo)右。在(zai)电(dian)(dian)火花(hua)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong),电(dian)(dian)弧(hu)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)是造成负极腐蚀损坏的主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)因(yin)(yin)素(su),再加上间(jian)隙不 合适,容易(yi)(yi)使(shi)某(mou)一(yi)(yi)脉(mai)冲(chong)形成电(dian)(dian)弧(hu)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian),只(zhi)要(yao)(yao)电(dian)(dian)弧(hu)放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)于(yu)某(mou)一(yi)(yi)段,就会(hui)引起断(duan)(duan)丝(si)(si)。

根据工(gong)(gong)件厚(hou)(hou)度(du)选(xuan)择合(he)适(shi)的(de)(de)放电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)(xi):放电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)(xi)不能太小,否则(ze)容易(yi)产(chan)生(sheng)短路,也(ye)不 利于(yu)冷却(que)和电(dian)(dian)(dian)蚀物的(de)(de)排出;放电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)(xi)过(guo)大,将影响表面粗(cu)糙(cao)度(du)及加工(gong)(gong)速(su)度(du)。当切割(ge)厚(hou)(hou)度(du) 较大的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件时,应尽量选(xuan)用大脉宽电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),同时放电(dian)(dian)(dian)间隙(xi)(xi)也(ye)要大一(yi)点(dian),长而增(zeng)强排屑效果(guo) ,提高(gao)切割(ge)的(de)(de)稳定(ding)性。


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